Research

Areas of Research

  • Patient-specific MR imaging
  • Quantifying disease burden in multiple sclerosis

Ongoing Projects

  • Patient-specific optimization of MRI in multiple sclerosis
  • Deep learning characterization of disease burden in multiple sclerosis
  • Myelin imaging using T2 relaxometry
  • Tissue oxygenation using QSM
  • Real-time MRI quality control
  • Reducing patient anxiety in MRI using acoustic noise-modulated computer animations

Publications

A.  Refereed Original Articles in Journals

  1. Gabr RE*, Coronado I, Robinson M, Sujit SJ, Datta S, Sun X, Allen WJ, Lublin FD, Wolinsky JS, Narayana PA. Brain and lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis using fully-convolutional neural networks: A large-scale study. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 2019, in press.
  2. Narayana PA, Coronado I, Sujit SJ, Sun X, Wolinsky JS, Gabr RE. Are multi-contrast magnetic resonance images necessary for segmenting multiple sclerosis brains? A large cohort study based on deep learning. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2019. In press.
  3. Narayana PA, Coronado I, Sujit SJ, Wolinsky JS, Lublin FD, Gabr RE. Deep Learning-Based Neural Tissue Segmentation of MRI in Multiple Sclerosis: Effect of Training Set Size. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2019. In press.
  4. Narayana PA, Coronado I, Sujit SJ, Wolinsky JS, Lublin FD, Gabr RE. Deep Learning for Predicting Enhancing Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis from Non-contrast MRI. Radiology. 2019. In press.
  5. Gabr RE*, Zunta-Soares G, Soares JC, Narayana PA. MRI acoustic noise-modulated computer animations for patient distraction and entertainment with application in pediatric psychiatric patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2019. In press.
  6. Varadhan R*, Russ DW, Gabr RE, Huang J, Kalyani RR, Xue Q, Cappola AR, Bandeen-Roche K, Fried LP. Relationship of physical frailty to phosphocreatine recovery in muscle after mild exercise stress in the oldest-old women. Journal of Frailty and Aging. 2019. In press.
  7. Sujit SJ, Coronado I, Kamali A, Narayana PA, Gabr RE*. Automated Image Quality Evaluation of Structural Brain MRI using an Ensemble of Deep Learning Networks. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019; in press (early view). https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26693
  8. Haque ME*, Gabr RE, Hasan KM, George SD, Arevalo OD, Zha AM, et al. Ongoing Secondary Degeneration of the Limbic System in Patients with Ischemic Stroke: A Longitudinal MRI Study. Front Neurol. Frontiers; 2019;10:154.
  9. Haque ME*, Gbar RE, George SD, Boren SB, Arevalo OD, Alderman S, et al. Serial Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Patients with Ischemic Stroke Treated with Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mononuclear Cells. Front Neurol. Frontiers; 2019;10:141.
  10. Gabr RE, El-Sharkawy AM, Schär M*, Panjrath GS, Gerstenblith G, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Cardiac work is related to creatine kinase energy supply in human heart failure: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2018 Dec;20(1):81.
  11. Allen WJ*, Gabr RE, Tefera GB, Pednekar, AS, Vaughn, MW, Narayana, PA. Platform for Automated Real-Time High Performance Analytics on Medical Image Data. Biomed. Heal. Informatics. 2018; 22(2):318–324.
  12. Mohamed AS*, Bahig H, Aristophanous M, Blanchard P, Kamal M, Ding Y, Cardenas CE, Brock KK, Lai SY, Hutcheson KA, Phan J, Wang J, Ibbott G, Gabr RE, Narayana PA, Garden AS, Rosenthal DI, Gunn GB, Fuller CD, Prospective in silico study of the feasibility and dosimetric advantages of MRI-guided dose adaptation for human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer patients compared with standard IMRT. Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. 2018; 11(June 2018):11-18.
  13. Gabr RE*, Pednekar AS, Kamali A, Lincoln JA, Nelson FM, Wolinsky JS, Narayana PA. Interleaved susceptibility‐weighted and FLAIR MRI for imaging lesion‐penetrating veins in multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance in medicine. 2018 Sep;80(3):1132-7.
  14. Haque ME*, Gabr RE, Zhao X, Hasan KM, Valenzuela A, Narayana PA, et al. Serial quantitative neuroimaging of iron in the intracerebral hemorrhage pig model. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018; 38(3):375–381.
  15. Gabr RE*, Pednekar AS, Govindarajan KA, Sun X, Riascos RF, Ramirez MG, et al. Patient-specific 3D FLAIR for enhanced visualization of brain white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. Wiley Online Library; 2017;46(2):557–564.
  16. Keser Z*, Hasan KM, Mwangi B, E Gabr R, M Nelson F. Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Defined Sulcal Enlargement Is Related to Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. Wiley Online Library; 2017;27(3):312–7.
  17. Gabr RE*, Tefera GB, Allen WJ, Pednekar AS, Narayana PA. GRAPE: a graphical pipeline environment for image analysis in adaptive magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2017;12(3):449–457.
  18. Keser Z, Hasan KM*, Mwangi B, Gabr RE, Steinberg JL, Wilken J, et al. Limbic Pathway Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. Wiley Online Library; 2017;27(1):37–42.
  19. Gabr RE*, Hasan KM, Haque ME, Nelson FM, Wolinsky JS, Narayana PA. Optimal combination of FLAIR and T2-weighted MRI for improved lesion contrast in multiple sclerosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 Apr;44(5):1293–300.
  20. Gabr RE*, Sun X, Pednekar A, Narayana PA. Automated patient-specific optimization of three-dimensional double inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2016;75(2):585–93.
  21. Shetty AN*, Gabr RE, Rendon DA, Cassady CI, Mehollin-Ray AR, Lee W. Improving spectral quality in fetal brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy using constructive averaging. Prenat Diagn. Wiley Online Library; 2015;35(13):1294–300.
  22. Schär M*, Gabr RE, El-Sharkawy A-MM, Steinberg A, Bottomley PA, Weiss RG. Two repetition time saturation transfer (TwiST) with spill-over correction to measure creatine kinase reaction rates in human hearts. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. Springer; 2015;17(1):1–11.
  23. Zhang Y, Gabr RE, Zhou J, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA*. Highly-accelerated quantitative 2D and 3D localized spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) and sensitivity encoding. J Magn Reson [Internet]. 2013;237C:125–38. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24188921
  24. El-Sharkawy A-MM*, Gabr RE, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Quantification of human high-energy phosphate metabolite concentrations at 3 T with partial volume and sensitivity corrections. NMR Biomed. 2013;26:1363–71.
  25. Zhang Y, Gabr RE, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA*. Magnetic resonance Spectroscopy with Linear Algebraic Modeling (SLAM) for higher speed and sensitivity. Vol. 218, Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 2012. p. 66–76.
  26. Gabr RE, El-Sharkawy A-MM, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA*. High-energy phosphate transfer in human muscle: diffusion of phosphocreatine. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C234–41.
  27. Gabr RE, Schär M, Edelstein AD, Kraitchman DL, Bottomley PA, Edelstein WA*. MRI dynamic range and its compatibility with signal transmission media. J Magn Reson. 2009;198:137–45.
  28. Gabr RE, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA*. Correcting reaction rates measured by saturation-transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Magn Reson. 2008;191:248–58.
  29. Gabr RE, Ouwerkerk R, Bottomley PA*. Quantifying in vivo MR spectra with circles. J Magn Reson. 2006;179:152–63.
  30. Gabr RE*, Aksit P, Bottomley PA, Youssef A-BBM, Kadah YM. Deconvolution-interpolation gridding (DING): Accurate reconstruction for arbitrary k-space trajectories. Magn Reson Med. 2006;56:1182–91.
  31. Gabr RE, Sathyanarayana S, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA*. On restoring motion-induced signal loss in single-voxel magnetic resonance spectra. Magn Reson Med. 2006;56:754–60.
  32. Kadah YM*, Fahmy AS, Gabr RE, Heberlein K, Hu XP. Progressive magnetic resonance image reconstruction based on iterative solution of a sparse linear system. Int J Biomed Imaging. 2006;2006(ID 49378).

*Corresponding author.

 

B. Refereed Conference Papers and Abstracts

  1. Gabr RE. Correcting T2 Maps Calculated From Dual-Echo Fast Spin Echo MRI for the Effects of K-Space Profile Order and Stimulated Echoes. AAPM, 2019
  2. Sujit S, Gabr R, Coronado I, Narayana P. Detection and Classification of Artifacts in Structural Brain MR Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. AAPM, 2019
  3. Zandiyeh P, Warth R, Narayana P, Gabr R, Kumaravel M, Lowe W, Harner C, Tashman S. UTE T2* MRI Shows Evidence of Tissue Remodeling in ACL Grafts Between 1 and 9 Months after Surgery. ISB/ASB 2019.
  4. Lincoln JA, Freeman L, Papadimitropoulos G, Charron O, Hasan KM, Gabr RE, Narayana PA, Wolinsky JS. Enhanced Regional Cerebral Perfusion Following Acetazolamide: Preliminary Oral Dose-Escalation Results. ACTRIMS, 2019.
  5. Gabr RE, Narayana PA. Reducing Patient Anxiety in MRI using Acoustic Noise-Modulated Computer Animations: Experience in Pediatric Psychiatric Patients. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), 2019.
  6. Sujit SJ, Gabr RE, Coronado I, Narayana PA. Cascaded Deep Learning Networks for Automated Image Quality Evaluation of Structural Brain MRI. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), 2019.
  7. Narayana PA, Coronado I, Datta S, Sujit SJ, Lublin FD, Wolinsky JS, Gabr RE. Deep Learning for Identification of Active Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis Without Administration of Gadolinium Based Contrast Agent. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), 2019.
  8. Coronado I, Gabr RE, Datta S, Sujit SJ, Lublin FD, Wolinsky JS, Narayana PA. Deep Learning for Characterizing Image Sequence Significance in Brain Tissue Segmentation. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), 2019.
  9. Tashman S, Zandiyeh P, Warth R, McDermott JD, Narayana PA, Gabr RE, et al. ACL Graft Remodeling Revealed By Serial UTE T2* MRI. In: Orthopedic Research Society (ORS) Annual conference Austin, Texas. 2019.
  10. Sujit SJ, Gabr RE, Coronado I, Robinson M, Datta S, Narayana PA. Automated Image Quality Evaluation of Structural Brain Magnetic Resonance Images using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. In: Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC). Vol. 2018. ; 2018.
  11. Narayana PA, Coronado I, Robinson M, Sujit SJ, Datta S, Sun X, Lublin FD, Wolinsky JS, Gabr RE. Multimodal MRI Segmentation of Brain Tissue and T2-Hyperintense White Matter Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and a Large Multi-center Image Database. In: Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC). ; 2018.
  12. Gabr RE, Narayana PA. Imaging Intralesional Heterogeneity in Multiple Sclerosis using a T2 Filter. In: Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC). Vol. 2018. ; 2018.
  13. Gabr R, He R, Sujit S, Narayana P. A Real-Time Quality Assurance Framework for Structural Brain MRI. In: AAPM 2018, Medical Physics. Vol. 45. ; 2018. pp. E214–E214.
  14. Gabr R, Williams C, He R, Narayana P. Effect of the Classifier Performance Criterion On Image Quality Assessment in MRI. In: AAPM 2018, Medical Physics. Vol 45.; 2018:E215–E215.
  15. Hasan KM, Gabr RE, Lincoln JA, Narayana PA. Novel multi-band accelerated, reference-less, multifaceted icosahedral and multishell diffusion MRI protocol for human whole brain clinical applications. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). 2018. p. 1672.
  16. Gabr R, El-Sharkawy A, Schär M, Gerstenblith G, Weiss, R, Bottomley, P. Creatine kinase energy supply correlates with mechanical work and efficiency in healthy and failing human heart: a combined noninvasive MRI/MRS study. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM).Vol 2018.; 2018:1087.
  17. Gabr RE, Allen WJ, Tefera GB, Sun X, He R, Kumaravel M, Vaughn MW, Narayana PA. User-defined, scanner-integrated, and real-time MRI image analysis in a cloud-based computing environment. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM).; 2018:4065.
  18. Haque ME, Gabr RE, Zhao X, Hasan KM, Narayana PA, Savitz SI, et al. Quantitative Serial Neuroimaging of Iron in the Intracerebral Hemorrhage Pig Model. In: 17th International Stroke Conference. Houston, TX, USA; 2017.
  19. Lincoln JA, Freeman L, Staine L, Hasan KM, Gabr R, Narayana PA, Wolinsky JS. Enhanced regional cerebral perfusion following acetazolamide: preliminary results. In: ECTRIMS 2017, Late Breaking News Abstracts. Multiple Sclerosis Journal. Vol. 23. ; 2017. pp. 982–983.
  20. Hasan K, Gabr R, Lincoln J, Narayana P. Toward Real Time Estimation and Quality Assurance for Myelin Water Mapping in the Human Central Nervous System. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; 2017. p. 4740.
  21. Haque M, Gabr R, Hasan K, Jeevarajan J, Izygon J, Nghiem D, et al. Serial MRI of Lateral Ventricular Enlargement to Measure Rate of Brain Atrophy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Honolulu, HI, USA; 2017. p. 4575.
  22. Gabr R, Pednekar A, Govindarajan K, Sun X, Riascos R, Ramírez M, et al. Improving White Matter Lesion Conspicuity in Multiple Sclerosis Using Patient-Specific Optimization of 3D FLAIR. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Honolulu, HI, USA; 2017. p. 221.
  23. Allen W, Gabr R, Tefera G, Pednekar A, Liu S, Liu H, et al. Automated Real-Time Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI). Orlando, FL, USA; 2017.
  24. Gabr R, Tefera G, Allen W, Pednekar A, Narayana P. A Graphical Programming Environment for Creating and Executing Adaptive MRI Protocols. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Honolulu, HI, USA; 2017. p. 1453.
  25. Gabr RE, Narayana PA. Patient Distraction and Entertainment System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging using Visual Effects Synchronized to the Scanner Acoustic Noise. In: The 13th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP). Rome, Italy; 2016. p. 60.
  26. Gabr RE, Pednekar AS, Narayana PA. Interleaved acquisition of high resolution 3D susceptibility-weighted and FLAIR MRI. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Singapoer, Signapore; 2016. p. 4102.
  27. Gabr RE, Pednekar AS, Sun X, Narayana PA. A Framework for Precision Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Initial Results. In: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI). Las Vegas, NV, USA; 2016. p. 276–9.
  28. Rister B, Reiter D, Zhang H, Volz D, Horowitz M, Gabr RE, et al. Scale- and orientation-invariant keypoints in higher-dimensional data. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) [Internet]. 2015. p. 3490–4. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=7351453
  29. Shetty AN, Gabr RE, Rendon D, Cassady C, Mehollin‐Ray A, Lee W. Constructive averaging improves motion-induced signal loss in fetal brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. Montréal, Canada; 2015.
  30. Gabr RE, Sun X, Pednekar AS, Narayana PA. Optimizing gray-matter white-matter contrast on three-dimensional double inversion recovery MRI using patient-specific inversion times. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Toronto, Canada; 2015. p. 1385.
  31. Gabr RE, Pednekar A, Sun X, Narayana PA. Online brain tissue classification in multiple sclerosis using a scanner-integrated image analysis pipeline. In: International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications. Lisbon; 2014.
  32. Kalamangalam GP, Gabr RE, Narayana PA. Field Potential Imaging: A New Paradigm for Focal Epilepsy. In: 68th Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society. Society, Seattle, WA, USA; 2014.
  33. Gabr RE, Narayana PA. Enhanced detection of cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis using magnetization transfer and double inversion recovery. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Milan Italy; 2014. p. 954.
  34. Gabr RE, Pednekar AS, Sun X, Narayana PA. Advancing the clinical utility of MRI with online quantitative analysis: application to brain tissue classification in multiple sclerosis. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Milan, Italy; 2014. p. 407.
  35. Zhang Y, Gabr RE, Zhou J, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM): speed and quantification in brain tumor studies. In: Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2013. p. 530.
  36. Gabr RE, El-Sharkawy AM, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac work and CK energy supply in healthy and failing human hearts. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2013. p. 579.
  37. Panjrath GS, Schär M, El-Sharkawy A-M, Gabr R, Schulman SP, Gerstenblith G, et al. Skeletal muscle ATP kinetics during exercise in patients with systolic heart failure. Age. 2013;41(11.1):50–8.
  38. El-Sharkawy A-MM, Gabr RE, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Human Cardiac 31P Metabolite Concentrations at 3T. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Melbourne, Australia; 2012. p. 4405.
  39. Zhang Y, Gabr RE, Schär M, Zhu H, Barker P, Weiss RG, et al. Dramatic speedup in 1D-, 2D-and 3D-MRS scan times with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM). In: Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2012.
  40. Zhang Y, Gabr RE, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Encoding of pre-selected compartments produces large SNR and speed advantages for 31P MRS. In: Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2011. p. 1438.
  41. Gabr RE, El-Sharkawy AM, Schär M, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Measuring energy diffusion: phosphocreatine in human skeletal muscle. In: Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2011. p. 1140.
  42. Ahmed HM, Gabr RE, Youssef AM, Kadah YM. Optimizing kernel size in generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition in parallel magnetic resonance imaging. Proc. SPIE 7622, Medical Imaging 2010: Physics of Medical Imaging, 762258
  43. Mohamed H, Gabr RE, Youssef AM, Kadah YM. New Approach for Data Acquisition and Image Reconstruction in Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: 26th National Radio Science Conference (NRSC2009). 2009. p. 2–7.
  44. Gabr RE, Ahmed HM, Youssef AM, Kadah YM. A New Method for Data Acquisition and Image Reconstruction in Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; 2009. p. 2626.
  45. Ahmed HM, Gabr RE, Kadah YM, Youssef AM. A New Method for Data Acquisition and Image Reconstruction in Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference, CIBEC. 2008. p. 1–4.
  46. Gabr RE, Schar M, Edelstein AD, Bottomley PA, Edelstein WA. MRI Dynamic Range: Theory and Measurement. In: Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2008. p. 1129.
  47. Gabr RE, Bottomley PA. Improving the Circle Fitting (CFIT) Performance for MRS Data Quantification. In: ISMRM Workshop on Data Processing for MR Spectroscopy and Imaging. Warrenton, VA, USA; 2006.
  48. Gabr RE, Ouwerkerk R, Bottomley PA. CFIT: A novel circle-fitting approach to spectral analysis. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Seattle, WA, USA; 2006. p. 2529.
  49. Gabr RE, Aksit P, Bottomley PA, Youssef AM, Kadak YM. Iterative Deconvolution-Interpolation Gridding. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Seattle, WA, USA; 2006. p. 2952.
  50. Gabr RE, Schär M, Sathyanarayana S, Weiss RG, Bottomley PA. Predicting SNR gains from constructive averaging of proton spectra: theory and practice. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). Seattle, WA, USA; 2006. p. 2540.
  51. Ahmed H, Gabr R, Heberlein K, Hu X, Kadah Y. New strategy for simultaneous suppression of intra- and inter-slice motion. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM). 2003. p. 1060.
  52. Ahmed HM, Gabr RE, Youssef A-BM, Heberlein K, Hu X, Kadah YM. Combined intra-and inter-slice motion artifact suppression in magnetic resonance imaging. In: Medical Imaging 2003. 2003. p. 296–305.
  53. ElSayed R, Youssef T, Badawi A. Localization of Facial Features Using Pulse-Coupled Neural Network and Active Contour. In: IEEE, International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation (IETA). 2001.

C. Book Chapters

  1. El-Sayed H. Ibrahim, Refaat E. Gabr, “MRI Basics” In “Heart Mechanics Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Mathematical Modeling, Pulse Sequences, and Image Analysis”, 2017.
  2. El-Sayed H. Ibrahim, Refaat E. Gabr, Michael Salerno. “Image Acquisition Sequences in Myocardial Tagging” In “Heart Mechanics Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Advanced Techniques, Clinical Applications, and Future Trends”, 2017.